‘Tis The Season

While perhaps you can ignore the holiday decorations that sprout up all over America’s malls right after Halloween, you absolutely know the holidays are here when the various citizens groups and media outlets begin publishing their lists of “deadly”, “dangerous” or “toxic” toys pulled from reports 635515781002297417-D12-PRIMES-GRINCH-30-3881065with ominous titles like “Trouble in Toyland!”.  Like much about the holidays, these lists are annual traditions.

The holidays must be here because this week has seen a spate of such news stories, with one national network story declaring “that toys are becoming more dangerous”.  Since this conclusion runs counter to my recollections from my days as a CPSC commissioner, I checked out the latest CPSC report on toy-related deaths and injuries, published last month.  The study concluded that there was no statistically significant upward trend in the number of toy-related injuries in 2013, or indeed for the proceeding five years.

Several of the news stories have focused on ride-on toys, such as wagons, tricycles and, in particular, scooters as being especially dangerous and a growing risk to children.  But, the CPSC report did not find any upward trend in the injury numbers for these products over the past few years.  Scooters became wildly popular with children in the mid- to late-1990’s and, as usage of the product grew in these years, so did injuries. From 1999 to 2001 there was an alarming increase in the number of scooter injuries and deaths.   The injury rate for these products, however, has stabilized since the early part of the century, and the CPSC does not see a statistically significant increase in its numbers.  Parsing through all these statistics does not make for a good news story so the viewer is left with an entirely different impression—that injuries caused from scooters and other ride-on toys are on the rise.

My point is not to suggest no child will ever be injured playing with a toy or riding on a scooter.  To the contrary, the statistics show that injuries do happen.  And, of course, we all need to be on the lookout for toys that do not meet federal safety standards or are defective; the CPSC is always vigilant in removing such products from the market.  But we should also keep two other things in mind. First, as the CPSC itself notes, the injuries it complies may be related to but are not necessarily caused by the toy—a big difference. And more importantly, how toys are used, rather than how they are made or designed, more often than not determine whether an injury will occur.  It is this aspect of toy safety—consumer education–which the media and consumer watchdogs seem to leave to others, and that is a shame.

In one of the media reports, one of the groups publicizing its dangerous toy list said that until we can trust that toys are safe, “parents need to watch out for common hazards when shopping for toys.”  Oh, please . . .until we can trust that toys are safe?!.  My response, as a parent, is that I will never cede to others my responsibility to think about whether something I give my child is a hazard.

Since toy-related injuries have remained relatively stable over the years, my challenge to those who make up these lists and report on them is this:  Rather than seeking attention through scare tactics, why not spend more time talking with consumers about the safe use of toys, about buying age appropriate toys for children, about keeping toys with small parts and other choking hazards out of the reach of small children and about using appropriate safety gear when getting on that scooter.  Why not work affirmatively and constructively to push the injury trends downward?

The CPSC will soon vote on its spending priorities for the current fiscal year. Perhaps an effort to channel the creativity of the toy industry, the media and those who say they represent the public into a public education effort to remind all of us that safety—especially with respect to children– is a shared responsibility would be a worthwhile undertaking.  Perhaps such a sustained joint effort could actually reduce the number of toy-related injuries.  And wouldn’t that be a happy holiday?

Seeking the Promise in Compromise

In an especially insightful column this past week, political analyst Michael Gerson noted that often policy-making is as much about methods as it isimages about outcomes. The manner in which things get resolved can often leave them unresolved or at least leave them festering.   He, of course, was talking about the dynamics between the President and the Congress and the brewing ideological storm looming on the horizon about to be seeded to the saturation point by aggressive use of executive orders. Yet, as I read his column, I could not help but wonder what would happen if, in one small corner of government, public servants actually worked hard and honestly to seek compromise rather than steamroll through an ideological result because they can.  Of course I was thinking about the CPSC.  Oh, how naïve of me.

After four years when little effort was made to accommodate differing views in order to reach consensus, new leadership and a roster of four out of five commissioners new to the agency offered the potential for real change. And an early effort by Chairman Kaye and Commissioner Mohorovic gave hope to the notion that perhaps that new territory—the elusive middle ground—could be profitably explored.  Kaye and Mohorovic were both asked by Senator Thune during their confirmation hearing for concrete plans to reduce testing costs and burdens currently being imposed by the agency, and the two put their heads together and came up with a joint response to the Senator.  Up to this point, the Commission has done nothing except talk about how hard it is to do anything—neatly forgetting that when it put the testing rules in place that are now driving those costs, its own economists told it that the costs of those rules would be unsustainable for many businesses.  Even when asked by Congress to address these costs, the Commission’s activities have consisted of foot-dragging tactics cloaked in enough bureaucratic jargon to make even the most cynical panjandrum shake his head in wonder.

Chairman Kaye and Commissioner Mohorovic, however, did come up with three specific additional recommendations that, if implemented, actually might reduce the testing burdens now being imposed by the Commission.  Admittedly, what the two proposed is still quite modest—thin gruel but still some nutrition.  Yet I cannot help but think that if each had written an individual letter, those letters would have been quite different—one more expansive and one less so.  The point is that, presumably, the two were able to accommodate their differing views to get to a consensus.   (But since nothing substantive has been done to drive forward the ideas articulated in the letter, it remains to be seen whether they are merely words on paper, like the rest of the agency’s burden reduction efforts, or whether there is anything real behind them.)

My hope in thinking that perhaps a new effort at consensus building was alive and well at the CPSC was dashed a couple of weeks ago when the agency voted to propose a rule to regulate recreational off-road vehicles (ROV’s). The agency and the industry have been working on safety issues associated with ROV’s for many years. These issues are perhaps the most complex that the agency has ever been presented with and, hence, are not easily resolved.  The industry has developed and recently revised a voluntary standard even as the agency staff worked to write a proposed mandatory standard.  When the proposed standard was made public shortly before the Commission was scheduled to vote on whether to issue it for public comment, the industry engineers met with the staff to discuss various technical issues presented by the draft, an effort which staff agreed was productive. Rather than make further attempts to work through these technical issues, three Commissioners chose to vote to issue the notice of proposed rulemaking. The result was a 3 to 2 vote, along party lines, to issue a proposed rule that is probably not the best work product the agency could have put out.  An amendment to delay the vote by 90 days to give the technical experts the opportunity to work through the issues raised was defeated, again along party lines.

If the leadership of the agency was serious about trying to compromise, then agreeing to this amendment would have been a no-brainer.  If issues could have been resolved, or at least clarified, in that 90 day period, then efficiencies would have been gained. If not, then the industry’s hand would have been called.  Either way, no one can make a credible argument that a rulemaking this complex and potentially lengthy would be so delayed as to jeopardize safety.  A controversial issue would have been diffused, the dissenting commissioners would perhaps have a harder time voting against the NPR; complex technical issues may have been clarified with a resulting better proposed rule—all around a win-win.

Finding consensus and reaching a compromise is very hard work.  If you are in the minority, sometimes achieving small wins may not feel as satisfying as keeping to your principles.  Yet small wins can still be wins.  But when you are in the majority, compromise means that you have to be willing to try to reach common ground even your vote count says you do not need to and when the temptation to jump on the steamroller is strong.  As we are seeing, finding the promise in compromise is not an easy thing to do.

Connecting Corporate Counsel

Readers who are in corporate law departments may be interested in a conversation I had recently with the editors of Corporate Counsel Connect, a Thomson Reuters publication focusing on corporate law departments.  The focus of the piece was the development and 30 year history of the Association of Corporate Counsel (ACC), where I served as its first executive director.  You can find the interview in the October issue of Corporate Counsel Connect, here.  In a separate article I discussed with the editors the challenges that corporate counsel face in the current regulatory environment.

Corporate counsel who are not members of ACC may want to check out the resources it offers.

 

Questionable Recalls–Will Consumers Just Tune Out?

Through all the controversial statutory and regulatory changes that have occurred at the CPSC over recent years, the product recall has remained the most reliable mechanism to provide consumers protection from hazardous products that find their way into the marketplace and into their homes.  When I was a commissioner, I was both impressed and proud of the herculean work that the agency compliance staff did to identify the true hazards warranting recalls and to winnow out the incidents that did not warrant further investigation or action.

But a recall will not accomplish its purpose unless the consumer pays attention and either takes advantage of the remedy being offered or otherwise alters behavior to avert the risk.  And consumers will not pay attention if they think that recalls do not affect them, are of no consequence, or, worse, are just silly.  And, if they think that, they will be less likely to pay attention in the future.

This past week, I was traveling abroad, and being stuck in an airport with limited reading material, I read the recent CPSC recall press releases.  One caught my eye, but because I was several time zones away from Bethesda, MD, I could not call anyone at the agency or any practitioners in Washington to ask about it. In other words, I was just an average consumer reading the recall notice.

The recall involved a small folding table that was being recalled because it collapsed when sat upon. The company reported that four consumers sustained injuries after the tables collapsed when the consumers sat on the table tops.  Note that the recalled products are tables, not chairs or benches; they are designed to hold plates and glasses, not people’s derrieres.  From the picture in the press release, these are the kind of small tables that are pulled up beside a chair to hold a plate or glass and then are folded away when not needed.

Apparently four consumers misused the product and were injured as a result.  Foreseeable consumer misuse can be a justification for a recall.  The agency has not really defined when consumer misuse will justify a recall but hauls that rationale out when needed.  Is four consumers being injured by sitting on what is clearly a small table foreseeable consumer misuse or is it just four consumers acting without care or perhaps negligently?  Does this matter in the agency’s eyes?

And why would the company agree to do such a recall?  Perhaps given the hostile climate at the agency right now, it is easier and cheaper to just do a recall than to risk an investigation and the threats of seven or eight figure penalties because four people were injured sitting on a table you sold.  But while this rationale may be understandable, it leads to recalls of dubious merit.  And consumers may stop listening.

It used to be that the agency did not accept such recalls but times have changed.  With this recall, it would appear that now almost any misuse can justify a recall and this seems to be a pretty broad expansion of the notion of foreseeable consumer misuse.  But that is only how it looks to this average consumer.

Import Workshop–Searching for Answers

Since 2008, consumer product manufacturers and importers have been required by law to certify that their products meet applicable safety standards. The CPSC now proposes to answers sign_Resized_300x239require the electronic filing of those certificates with Customs and Border Protection (CBP) prior to import and to expand the information that must be included on the certificates.  At a workshop two weeks ago, the agency explained its proposal and heard from various stakeholders about the impact of its proposal.

The workshop certainly gave participants much substantive information. But it also left the distinct impression that there is much misunderstanding of the proposal among the various parties, much misinformation within the agency about many aspects of the import process, and much back-to-the-drawing-board analysis that needs to be done before this proposal goes live.

The session started with the agency explaining the need for the proposal.  While the agency did not exactly say, “we are from the government and we are here to help you,” the agency did say that the intent of the proposal was to facilitate trade and make the import process more efficient as the agency carries out its regulatory function.

The agency then heard from importers who told it in some detail how its proposal grossly underestimated the numbers of certificates that would need to be processed and the burden and costs of complying.  They questioned the need to change a system that was working now to target unsafe cargo and criticized the lack of flexibility in the proposed system.  Common carriers and custom brokers noted that they had no way of efficiently taking on the burden of filing certificates since they had no knowledge of applicable regulations or products.

Several other government agencies that have certification programs discussed their experiences but it was obvious that those programs are of a narrower scope or not apposite to what is being proposed by the CPSC.  The CBP asserted, in spite of what stakeholders had earlier said about CBP’s capabilities, that it was ready to handle the data that would be coming in from the electronic filing of certificates, although, should those certificates come in PDF form, that might cause a hiccup.

Finally at the end of the presentations, several pragmatists from the audience suggested that the agency rethink its objectives, giving concrete suggestions for simplifying the approach the agency was taking.  The meeting concluded with vague suggestions of a pilot program sometime in the future.

What the agency did not address at the workshop was how this proposal relates to its current budget request to Congress for millions of dollars to expand its risk assessment methodology (RAM) project to cover all imports under its jurisdiction and its proposal to charge importers user fees to pay the down-stream costs of this expansion.  Obviously electronic filing of certificates is a required first step before the expanded RAM and user fees can be put into place.

It may be that expansion of the RAM to assess the risk of all imports in the way the agency proposes makes sense.  Or it may be that an expansion can be better accomplished, if it needs to be done, by a staged process.  Perhaps user fees assessed against importers to pay for the system is the fairest way to assure that those whose products are subject to the system pay for it.  On the other hand, virtually everyone imports these days so user fees have a taxation aspect to them that needs to be considered.  These are all questions that the agency has not asked stakeholders.  Instead they will be debated through the appropriations process in the Congress. Rather than the agency first trying to educate and then get consensus on important policy issues, real potential for divisive debate now exists.

Would not the agency have been wise to tee up some of these important issues for discussion as well?  Many people asked why the agency wants to change a system that seems to be working well.  They deserve the full answer.

Process is Important

This week’s CPSC Commission briefing on the proposed final rule for high powered magnet sets was as notable for what did not happen as for what did.  As the Chairman explained, Commissioner Buerkle declined to participate in the briefing and in the upcoming vote because she believes that it is inappropriate for the agency to vote on a rulemaking addressing the same issues that are currently before a judge in a litigation to which the agency is a party, and which may come back to the commissioners for further review. How refreshing–a public servant who believes that process is important.

The case is being litigated before an administrative law judge against Zen Magnets, and seeks a recall, alleging that the company’s product is defective because it presents a substantial product hazard–children can sustain serious injuries if they swallow small powerful magnets like those Zen sells as adult desk toys.  Zen is the only company currently selling such a product, according to the agency.  While this case is ongoing, the agency plans to issue a final rule to prevent anyone from selling such a product in the future. (It is currently scheduled to vote on the final rule before the end of the month.)

At the hearing at least one commissioner argued that this two-pronged attack against tiny Zen was appropriate because (i) the statute allows for rules to be issued only on a prospective basis for product manufactured in future; and (ii) the statute allows for the agency to get dangerous product already manufactured out of the market through recalls, including those resulting from administrative litigation.  Therefore, the argument goes, the agency’s actions are perfectly proper. That analysis is disingenuous because it is incomplete.

The agency initiated rulemaking in 2012.  It is true that rules are prospective.  However, the agency does have a mechanism for getting products it believes to be unsafe off the market while a rule (or a litigation) is pending and it is not the coercive tactics agency used.  Under section 12 of the statute, the agency may go to court and seek an injunction against the sale of such a product while it undertakes rulemaking if the product poses an imminent hazard.  Of course, the problem, from the agency’s point of view, is that it would have to actually convince a judge.   But that is what the notion of due process is all about.

Instead of seeking an injunction while it pursued rulemaking, the agency “requested” retailers not to sell magnets, destroying the retail market, and tried to negotiate voluntary recalls with as many companies as possible.  Those that did not agree were sued.  The purpose of the agency’s actions was never to get product out of consumer’s hands.  The paltry return rate of the recalls that were done demonstrates that consumers were not going to send the product back.  Instead the purpose was to stop the sale of the product on an on-going basis and on an across-the-board basis, picking the companies off one by one.

At this point in the saga, the only player to withstand the government is Zen which is insisting on its right for a judge to determine whether its products pose a substantial product hazard because they are defective.  While some may say this is a quixotic quest on Zen’s part, that is its right under our system of justice.  If the agency believes that Zen’s products pose an imminent threat to consumers while this litigation is going on, it could seek an injunction under section 12 of the statute but it has not done that.

The commission now seeks to put its very heavy thumb onto the scales of justice by finding that the magnets Zen sells pose an unreasonable risk and therefore are illegal.  This decision by the commission cannot help but have an impact on the litigation before the administrative law judge.  The agency cannot argue that risk to consumers justifies this action since it has not taken the action it could have under section 12 to actually protect consumers.  Add to all this the fact that the same commissioners who are so anxious to vote on the rule will hear any appeals that might come out of the ALJ’s decision and you hardly have to wonder what that outcome will be.

Commissioner Buerkle seems to understand that process is important.  Too bad her colleagues are in such a hurry to throw it out the window.

Happy (?) Birthday

Perhaps someone, somewhere celebrated the 6th birthday of the CPSIA 10 days ago, but it sure blew right by me.  It took the Product Safety Daily publication to remind me that it had occurred. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The American Apparel and Footwear Association posted a short, thoughtful blog about the significance of the CPSIA’s anniversary, noting that the law did achieve some important safety benefits but not without some very significant and unnecessary costs.  And it is my position, as a commissioner who lived through the internal debates at the agency, that the CPSC was complicit in exacerbating those unnecessary costs and complexities.  The good things in the law could have been achieved without the heavy toll extracted.  That the agency has not moved to reduce testing burdens as instructed by Congress is either regulatory incompetence or arrogance run amuck.  But I repeat myself.


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