Archive for the 'Fireworks' Category

Completing Unfinished Business

As the year ends, we often scramble to finish those tasks that have been put off during image.pngthe year.  At the CPSC, several unfinished tasks still need some regulatory housekeeping before the new year with new priorities takes over everyone’s attention.  Finishing outstanding regulatory work that is ripe for completion is just good practice and it furthers the President’s call to make the regulatory process more user-friendly and less burdensome.

The very best example is the outstanding proposed interpretive rule to dramatically change the voluntary recall process.  This rule, which was proposed back in 2013 and has never been finally voted on, would require all voluntary corrective action plans submitted to the Commission by the private party executing the recall be legally binding agreements. It would also prohibit the recalling firm from stating that the submission of a voluntary corrective action plan does not constitute an admission that a product hazard exists without explicit approval by the CPSC staff.  It would allow the agency staff to require the firm to implement a compliance program as a part of the voluntary recall.

The bottom line is that the proposal takes the “voluntary” out of the voluntary recall process and turns existing practice on its head.  While much has been written about why this would proposal would discourage firms from conducting voluntary recalls, with a resulting harmful safety impact on consumers, the proposal remains on the agency books as an unfinished piece of business.  Stakeholders—both product sellers and consumer advocates—have objected to the proposal and Congress has several times refused funding for implementation of the proposed rule.  It is time the Commissioners scheduled a vote on this proposal and then voted it down.

The Commissioners need to take the same action on a 2014 proposal that would change the long-standing regulations assuring the fairness and accuracy of any public statements made by the agency identifying specific products.  The requirement for fairness and accuracy is a statutory requirement added to the statute to assure that the agency did not violate due process tenants by regulating by press release. This was unfortunately happening in the early days of the agency and the Congress stepped in to stop it by passing Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. § 2055(b)).  The proposed rule would weaken the current protections that have been in place since 1983 and is contrary to the intent of Congress.  It should be finally voted down.

Also spinning in limbo is the agency’s Retailer Reporting Program, under which major retailers report safety complaints to the agency.  Since the beginning of the program, it has been understood that these reports, which are both voluntary and confidential, would satisfy the legal reporting requirements a retailer otherwise had.  The data collected has the potential to provide insight into developing hazards and could have been a useful supplement to the other data collection activities of the agency.  However, the CPSC changed the reporting underpinnings of the program, creating confusion and making it a questionable undertaking for retailers.  The agency has been “studying” the program for several years and it is time to bring that study to closure.  The CPSC’s regulatory actions must be based on data and the agency’s data sources are recognized by many to be outdated and inadequate.  A redesigned retailer reporting program could potentially augment the agency’s hazard data and be another useful tool to identify hazards in the marketplace.

Finally, it is inexplicable why the Commissioners have not moved to complete work on a proposed rule to modernize regulations addressing the hazards associated with fireworks.  Each year, overloaded fireworks kill or maim consumers.  The test to determine if a firework is “overly energetic” is quite subjective:  that is, CPSC staff listen to how loud it is and make an assessment.  For years, the agency has been trying to come up with a test that is not subjective and that can be implemented by the industry in the field. Working closely with the impacted industry and other stakeholders, the agency staff has now developed a test that can work and has buy-in from the majority of manufacturers.  Votes on this rule modernization have been scheduled and then cancelled without good explanation.  This proposed rule is a prime example of how regulatory reform can help product sellers and consumers alike.  It is time for the agency to move ahead on this proposed rule.

So, my year-end message to the CPSC is:  while housekeeping may not be that much fun, it needs to be done so that new tasks can be tackled in the new year.



Steps Forward; Steps Back

Now that August is over and Labor Day is but a memory, it is time to focus on how the twostepsforwardCPSC spent the closing days of summer.  On a positive note, the agency was able to push forward helpful initiatives that ease compliance costs without diluting safety.  Then they had to put a damper on this positive glow with threats of resurrecting the discredited and flawed proposals dealing with voluntary recalls and public information (the §6(b) rule).

Forward Steps

The recently published NPR interpreting the fireworks rule is one of those steps forward.  The fireworks regulation has been on the books for several decades and is sorely in need of updating.  Among many other things, the regulation is designed to address overloaded fireworks but does so in a less-than-straight-forward manner.  It bans fireworks “intended to produce audible effects” if those “audible effects” are produced by using more than 2 grains of pyrotechnic composition.  Rather than measure the pyrotechnic materials in the fireworks device to determine compliance, for years the staff has listened for the intensity of the sound produced by the device to determine if it was intended to produce audible effects or whether the sound produced was merely incidental to the operation of the device.  The staff’s determination as to how loud the device was, based on what a staffer heard, was hardly either objective or measurable and has resulted in compliance actions that have been criticized for lack of objectivity.

The American Pyrotechnic Association has a standard that actually measures the presence of materials that may be used to produce an audible effect.  The APA standard has been adopted by the Department of Transportation regulations that deal with the shipment of fireworks.  The proposal, which has been pushed by Commissioners Robinson and Mohorovic in particular, would adopt the APA standard as the testing measure for the CPSC as well. An objective standard would add clarity both for the staff who must make compliance decisions, and the industry which can stop worrying that compliance is dependent on a staffer’s ear.

Another example of a “step forward” is a proposal determining that four types of plastics used extensively in children’s products do not need to be tested for the presence of phthalates.  This proposal would put into action what product manufacturers have been telling the agency for some time—phthalates are not added to these substances and so testing for them both is unnecessary from the standpoint of safety and is costly and burdensome.  This proposal, which has been a long time in the making, compliments the flexibility found in the 2009 statement of policy on phthalates testing and, hopefully, should provide some relief to a number of manufacturers and importers.

Backward Steps

However, the Commissioners could not end the summer on a positive note.  Instead, on the last day of August, the Commissioners met to talk about their regulatory priorities for the upcoming fiscal year.  Observers of the agency are well aware of the controversy engendered by the agency proposal to significantly change the way voluntary recalls are negotiated and agreed to.  Similarly the proposed changes to §6(b) dealing with how information about individual products is made public would distort the statute and surely subject the agency to needless litigation. I have discussed the problems with these proposals in detail, and the Congress has told the agency to cease and desist.

Chairman Kaye has repeatedly expressed his lack of interest in moving forward with these two troublesome proposals.  However, each time he has been given the opportunity to vote to remove them from the agency’s regulatory priorities list, he has refused to do that.  At the recent priorities hearing he was given yet another chance to do that and he did not step up.  Instead, Commissioner Adler, a staunch foe of §6(b) and a supporter of the voluntary recall rule, announced that he would be trying to draft a “compromise” to offer at some unknown point in the future (and not specifying if that would be before or after the elections).  For those who thought that perhaps these two ill-conceived proposals were behind you, do not be so sure.  Commissioner Adler’s gambit may provide the excuse 3 Commissioners need to defy logic, good public policy and the Congress to promulgate these divisive and poorly thought-through rules.

Sparking Fireworks Reform

Tomorrow is the 4th of July and fireworks will be part of many of your celebrations. The use of fireworks for festive occasions is centuries old, and so, too, is the risk in using them.

Consumers should use fireworks responsibly and the CPSC should make sure that our regulations help consumers have a safe and fun experience. This was brought home to me by a Wall Street Journal article last week noting that many states have eased fireworks restrictions. Therefore, it is even more important that CPSC’s regulations on fireworks be up-to-date and capable of protecting the public from risks inherent in modern fireworks. But, that is not the case.

The current CPSC fireworks safety standards were written many years ago and really need to be modernized.  For example: under our current standard to determine if a Roman candle is overloaded with explosives, someone has to listen to how loud it is when it is exploded.  If it sounds too loud, it fails. The only testing equipment—just our tester’s ear! Would you like your product tested so subjectively?

There has been talk about the need to update the CPSC fireworks standard ever since I got here. I have tried to spur action on this only to be told that other priorities take precedence. Yet with more than 9,000 injuries every year, you would think that we could find some time to work on this issue more effectively.

In earlier posts I have talked about the importance of reviewing existing rules to identify and correct those that are out of date, need revision or impose undue burdens. Unfortunately, so far our rule review exercise is one of minor housekeeping, not major repair. Serious rule review doesn’t appear to be on the horizon. If we were serious, we have a number of rules that need revision—the fireworks rule should be toward the top of the list.

In the meantime, here are some safety tips for using fireworks.  And have a wonderful holiday!

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